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Media, faith and security

Protecting Freedom of Expression in Religious Context

The current challenges posed by hate speech across the globe have prompted the need to better understand the evolution of the right to be free from the harm of hate speech as codified within Article 20(2) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This paper examines the right’s evolution within international human rights law (IHRL). Its purpose is to understand the core difficulties that have faced efforts geared to the development, strengthening and expansion of international standards that provide protection from the harm of hate speech. To elaborate upon such difficulties, the paper identifies four internal features of the right to be free from the harm of hate speech, representing the challenges facing its interpretation and implementation. These four features are the right’s ‘emotional’ component; the complexities in proving the proscribed incitement; the tensions between the listeners’ and speakers’ rights to liberty and equality; and the right’s group-identity component, which creates tensions between individual and group rights. The paper argues that these four internal features of the right have a strong and direct influence on understanding the difficult path the right has taken in its evolution within IHRL.


To read full paper, please click here.

FreeExpression Blog



This project is designed to open up debate on a difficult subject: A debate about freedom of expression and freedom of belief and how to balance freedoms with protections, rights with limits?

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